Manganese nodules. Pacific Ocean

Major Minerals:

Todorokite, birnessite, poorly crystalline iron and manganese hydroxides

Trace Minerals:

Include magnetite, ilmenite, haematite, rutile, pyrite, chalcopyrite, bornite, nicolite, covelline


The nodules contain inclusions and cores of sedimentary clasts, older nodules or organic material. Complex collomorphic, higher and lower reflectance bands showing shrinkage cracks are typical